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Great Britain, Scott's catalog # 520, 1sh6p multicolor, Vickers 10 twin jet engines, Topical: Aviation, Town Cancel: Edinburgh. This stamp is without defects, and has no damage.
Edinburgh, Scotland, Great Britain (located in central-Southern Scotland)
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, situated on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth. With a population of 495,360 in 2011, it is the largest settlement in Lothian and lies at the centre of a larger urban zone of approximately 850,000 people. While the town originally formed on the ridge descending from the Castle Rock, the modern city is often said to be built on seven hills.
From its prehistoric roots as a hillfort, following periods of Celtic and Germanic influence, Edinburgh became part of the Kingdom of Scotland during the 10th century. With burgh charters granted by David I and Robert the Bruce, Edinburgh grew through the Middle Ages as Scotland’s biggest merchant town. By the time of the European Renaissance and the reign of James IV it was well established as Scotland's capital.
Humans settled the Edinburgh area at least as long ago as the Bronze Age, leaving traces of primitive settlements which have been found on Arthur's Seat, Craiglockhart Hill and the Pentland Hills.
By the time the Romans arrived in Lothian towards the end of the 1st century AD, they discovered a Celtic Brythonic tribe whose name they recorded as the Votadini. At some point before the 7th century AD, the Gododdin, who were presumably the descendants of the Votadini, built a hill fort known as Din Eidyn or Etin. Although its exact location has not been identified, it seems more than likely they would have chosen the commanding position of the Castle Rock, or Arthur's Seat or Calton Hill.
In AD 638 the Gododdin stronghold was besieged by forces loyal to King Oswald of Northumbria, and around this time the Edinburgh region passed to the Angles. Anglian influence continued over three centuries until c. AD 950 when, during the reign of Indulf, son of Constantine II, the "burh" (fortress), named by the Pictish Chronicle as "oppidum Eden", fell to the Scots and thenceforth remained under their jurisdiction.
The Royal Burgh was founded by a charter of King David I in the 12th century. By the middle of the 14th century, the French chronicler Froissart described it as the capital of Scotland (c.1365), and James III (1451-88) referred to it as "the principal burgh of our kingdom". Despite the destruction caused by an English assault in 1544, the town slowly recovered and was at the centre of events in the 16th-century Scottish Reformation and 17th-century Wars of the Covenant.
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